List of Hindu texts names – Part 1 of 4 (With basic information) (scriptures) (Granthas) (Holy Books) (treatise)
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Just before going to “List of Hindu texts names – Part 1 of 4 (With basic information) (scriptures) (Granthas) (Holy Books) (treatise)“, let us know a brief, basic and very important information.
Hindu texts (scriptures) (Granthas) (Holy books) (treatise) are the manuscripts which are vast ancient composition literature which authenticatively associated to the diverse traditions within Sanatana Dharma (Hinduism).
These authentic texts (scriptures) (Granthas) (Holy books) (treatise) of Sanatana Dharma (Hinduism) were written by Lord Sri Vishnu himself, few of them were composed by other Rishis and Devatas (Demigods) as per instructions of Lord Sri Vishnu.
The Hindu texts (scriptures) (Granthas) (Holy books) (treatise) are divided into Shrutis (that can be heard) and Smritis (that can be recalled or remembered).
In this post (article), you can get the knowledge about the names and it’s basic meaning of the Hindu texts (scriptures) (Granthas) (Holy books) (treatise).
List of Hindu texts names (scriptures) (Granthas) (Holy Books) (treatise) – Part 1 are as given below:
1. Vedas : In Sanskrit Veda (वेद / vēda) means sacred knowledge of Sanatana Dharma. Vaida means knower of this knowledge of Sanatana Dharma.
Vaidya means the physician or doctor, who has gained knowledge about medicines reading and understanding these great and divine Vedas.
Vedas are sub-divided into four parts (names) as given below:
1(1). Rig Veda : In Sanskrit Rig Veda is written as ऋग्वेद (r̥gvēda). Rig Veda is the oldest ever known Hindu text (scripture) (Grantha) (Holy book) (treatise).
The Rig Veda consists of the Brahmanas, Samhita, Brahmanas, Upanishads and Aranyakas.
The Rig Veda Samhita is the core text and is the collection of 10 maṇḍalas (books) with 1,028 sūktas (hymns) in about 10,600 verses.
1(2). Yajur Veda : In Sanskrit Yajur Veda is written as यजुर्वेद (yajurvēda).
In Yajur Veda, Yajus means ‘worship‘ and Veda means ‘knowledge‘, that is, Yajur Veda basically contains the mantras for worship rituals.
The Yajur Veda is widely divinded into two types, that is, ‘Krishna Yajur Veda‘ (dark Yajur Veda) and ‘Shukla Yajur Veda‘ (bright Yajur Veda).
The term ‘Krishna Yajur Veda’ or ‘dark’ means “the unorganized, uncertain, incongruously collection” of hymns in Yajurveda, whereas the ‘Shukla Yajur Veda’ or ‘bright’ means in “well organized, congruous collection“.
1(3). Sama Veda : In Sanskrit Sama Veda is written as सामवेद (sāmavēda).
In Sama Veda, sāman means song and Veda means knowledge, that is, Sama Veda relates to the melodies and chants.
The Sama Veda contains the Chants, that is, it is known as the “storehouse of knowledge of chants“.
1(4). Atharvana (Atharva) Veda : In Sanskrit Atharvana (Atharva) Veda is written as अथर्वणवेद (अथर्ववेद) (atharvaṇavēda) (atharvavēda).
In Atharvana (Atharva) Veda, atharvāṇas means “procedures of everyday life” and Veda means ‘knowledge‘.
2. Upanishads : In Sanskrit Upanishad is written as उपनिषद् (upaniṣad). Sometimes, उपनिषद् (upaniṣad) is also written as उपनिषत् (upaniṣat).
Upanishads mainly deals with deal with meditation, philosophy, consciousness, and ontological knowledge.
Upanishads are sub-divided into 108 parts (names) as given below:
2(1). Isha Upanishad : In Sanskrit Isha Upanishad is written as ईशोपनिषद् (īśōpaniṣad) (ईश उपनिषद्) (īśa upaniṣad).
The name Isha Upanishad is derived from the Sanskrit terms īśā + vāsyam, that is, Lord + Enveloped = enveloped by the Lord or concealed in the Lord.
The Isha Upanishad explains about the the Atman (Self) theory, and is by and large described by both Dvaita Siddhanta (dualism) and Advaita Siddhanta (non-dualism) schools of Vedanta.
2(2). Kena Upanishad : In Sanskrit Kena Upanishad is written as केनोपनिषद् (kēnōpaniṣad) (केन उपनिषद्) (kēna upaniṣad).
This divine Kena Upanishad is notable in its discussion of Brahman (Lord Sri Vishnu) with saguna (attributes) and nirguna (without attributes).
It shows the efficient cause of all the Devatas (Demigods), symbolically envisioned as forces of Brahman (Lord Sri Vishnu).
2(3). Katha Upanishad : In Sanskrit Katha Upanishad is written as कठोपनिषद् (kaṭhōpaniṣad) (कठ उपनिषद्) (kaṭha upaniṣad).
The Katha Upanishad explains the classical story of a little boy (approximately 5 years), Nachiketa.
Nachiketa was the son of Rishi (Sage) Vājashravas or Uddālaki (father). Nachiketa meets Lord Sri Yama Deva (deity of death) alive in Yama Loka.
In Katha Upanishad discusses about the conversation between Nachiketa and Lord Sri Yama Deva in regarding to the nature of manushya (human), gyan (knowledge), atman (self) and moksha (liberation).
2(4). Prashna Upanishad : In Sanskrit Prashna Upanishad is written as प्रश्नोपनिषद् (praśnōpaniṣad) (प्रश्न उपनिषद्) (praśna upaniṣad).
This Prashna Upanishad has six Prashna (questions), and each is a chapter with a discussion of answers of these all six questions.
Each and every chapter ends with the phrase, prasnaprativakanam, which means, ‘thus ends the answer to the question.
2(5). Mundaka Upanishad : In Sanskrit Mundaka Upanishad is written as मुण्डकोपनिषद् (muṇḍakōpaniṣad) (मुण्डक उपनिषद्) (muṇḍaka upaniṣad).
The Mundaka Upanishad contains three Mundakams (parts), each with two sections.
Mundaka Upanishad is presented as a conversation between great Rishi Saunaka and Maharishi Angiras.
Mundaka Upanishad is in the form of poetry, with 64 verses, written in the form of mantras.
But, we should note that, these mantras are not used in daily or special rituals or ceremonies, rather they are used for teaching and meditation on spiritual knowledge only.
2(6). Mandukya Upanishad : In Sanskrit it Mandukya Upanishad is written as माण्डुक्योउपनिषद् (māṇḍukyōpaniṣad) (माण्डुक्य उपनिषद्) (māṇḍukya upaniṣad).
The Mandukya Upanishad is the shortest form of all the Upanishads.
Mandukya Upanishad talks about ॐ (ōṁ) Aum and also asserts that ॐ (ōṁ) Aum is Brahman (Lord Sri Vishnu).
2(7). Taittiriya Upanishad : In Sanskrit Taittiriya Upanishad is written as तैत्तिरीय उपनिषद् or तैत्तिरीयोपनिषद् (taittirīya upaniṣad or taittirīyōpaniṣad).
The Taittiriya Upanishad is the 7th, 8th and 0th chapters of Taittirīya Āraṇyaka, which are also called as शिक्षावल्ली (Śikṣāvallī), आनन्दवल्ली (Ānandavallī) and भृगुवल्ली (Bhṛguvallī) respectively.
The Taittiriya Upanishad includes verses as given below:
Partial prayers and benedictions, partial instruction on phonetics and praxis, partial advice on ethics and morals given to graduating students from ancient Vedic Gurukuls, partial information about treatise on allegory, and partial philosophical instruction.
2(8). Aitareya Upanishad : In Sanskrit Aitareya Upanishad is written as ऐतरेय उपनिषद् or ऐतरेयोपनिषद् (aitarēya upaniṣad or aitarēyōpaniṣad).
Aitareya Upanishad gives clarification about three philosophical themes as given below:
First, the universe and human is the creation of the Atman; second, the theory that the Atman undergoes multiple births; third, the consciousness is the essence of Atman.
2(9). Chandogya Upanishad : In Sanskrit Chandogya Upanishad is written as छान्दोग्य उपनिषद् or छान्दोग्योपनिषद् (candōgya upaniṣad or chandōgyōpaniṣad).
Chandogya Upanishad is one of the largest Upanishad and has eight Prapathakas (chapter of lectures), and each chapter has multiple volumes, and each volume contains many verses.
2(10). Brihadaranyaka Upanishad : In Sanskrit Brihadaranyaka Upanishad is written as बृहदारण्यक उपनिषद् or बृहदारण्यकोपनिषद् (br̥hadāraṇyaka upaniṣad or br̥hadāraṇyakōpaniṣad).
The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad discusses about Ātman, metaphysics, ethics, yearning for knowledge etc.
2(11). Brahma Upanishad : In Sanskrit Brahma Upanishad is written as ब्रह्मोपनिषद् (brahmōpaniṣad) (ब्रह्म उपनिषद्) (brahma upaniṣad).
It talks about atma (soul) and its four avasthas (consciousness states) and four seats, that is –
The seats for the purpose of achieving Dhyana (mediation) of the Nirguna Brahman (Lord Sri Vishnu). It is presented as a conversation between Rishi Pippalada and Rishi Shaunaka.
2(12). Kaivalya Upanishad : Kaivalya Upanishad in Sanskrit is written as कैवल्योपनिषद् (kaivalyōpaniṣad) (कैवल्य उपनिषद्) (kaivalya upaniṣad).
Kaivalya Upanishad is a part of the collection of the Vedanta literature that presents the philosophical concepts of Sanatana Dharma (Hinduism).
Also, Kaivalya Upanishad discusses about atman (self) and its relation to Brahman (Lord Sri Vishnu), and self-knowledge as the path to Kaivalya (Moksha / liberation).
2(13). Jabala Upanishad : In Sanskrit Jabala Upanishad is written as जाबलोपनिषद् (jābalōpaniṣad) (जाबल उपनिषद्) (jābala upaniṣad).
Jabala Upanishad discusses about the subject of renouncing the material life for the exclusive pursuit of adhyatmika gyan (jnana) (spiritual knowledge).
Likewise, Jabala Upanishad talks about the divine city of Varanasi (Kashi) in spiritual terms, as Avimuktam.
Similarly, Jabala Upanishad explains about how that city of Varanasi (Kashi) became holy, then also adds that the holiest place to revere is one within the atman (soul and / or self).
2(14). Shvetashvatara Upanishad : In Sanskrit Shvetashvatara Upanishad is written as श्वेताश्वतरोपनिषद् (śvētāśvatarōpaniṣad) (श्वेताश्वतर उपनिषद्) (śvētāśvatara upaniṣad).
The Shvetashvatara Upanishad openly talks discusses about the metaphysical questions about the primal cause of all existence, its birth, its end, and what role, if any, time, nature, necessity, chance, and the spirit had as the primal cause.
2(15). Hamsa Upanishad : Sometimes it is also pronounced as Hansa Upanishad. In Sanskrit it is written as हंसोपनिषद् (hamsōpaniṣad) (hansōpaniṣad) (हंस उपनिषद्) (hamsa upaniṣad) hansa upaniṣad.
Hamsa Upanishad is structured as a discourse between Maharishi Gautama and the divine Sanatkumara, on the knowledge of Hamsa-vidya as a prelude to Brahmavidya.
Hamsa Upanishad explains the divine sound of ॐ (ōṁ), its relation to Hamsa (Hansa), and how meditating on this prepares one on the journey towards realizing Paramahamsa (Sannyasi / Sanyasi).
2(16). Aruneya Upanishad : In Sanskrit Aruneya Upanishad is written as आरुणेयोपनिषद् (āruṇiyōpaniṣad) (आरुणेय उपनिषद्) (āruṇēya upaniṣad).
Aruneya Upanishad explains about the cultural phenomenon of a Sannyasi (Sanyasi), that is, about a Hindu Monk, a practitioner of Sannyasa Ashrama or renunciation.
The Aruneya Upanishad also describes the attributes and lifestyle of a Paramahamsa (Sannyasi / Sanyasi / Hindu Monk), who has achieved the highest state of adhyatmika gyan (jnana) (spiritual knowledge).
2(17). Garbha Upanishad : In Sanskrit Garbha Upanishad is written as गर्भोपनिषद् (garbhōpaniṣad) (गर्भ उपनिषद्) (garbha upaniṣad).
The Garbha Upanishad is among the Upanishad that exclusively comments on medical and physiology-related themes.
This texts deals with the theory of the formation and development of the manushya bhrinam (मनुष्य भ्रूणम् / human embryo) and human body after birth.
2(18). Narayana Upanishad : In Sanskrit Narayana Upanishad is written as नारायणोपनिषद् (nārāyaṇōpaniṣad) (नारायण उपनिषद्) (nārāyaṇa upaniṣad).
This divine Narayana Upanishad was recited by Lord Sri Rama to his greatest devotee Hanuman.
The Narayana Upanishad asserts that “Om Namo Narayanaya“, an ashtakshari mantra (eight-syllabled mantra), as a means of reaching Moksha (salvation), which is communion with Lord Sri Vishnu.
The Narayana Upanishad clarifies that “all Devatas (Demigods), all rishis, and all beings are born from Lord Narayana (Vishnu), and also finally will merge into Lord Narayana (Vishnu)“.
2(19). Paramahamsa Upanishad : This Upanishad is also pronounced as Paramahansa Upanishad.
In Sanskrit it is written as परमहंसोपनिषद् (paramahamsōpaniṣad) (paramahansōpaniṣad) (परमहंस उपनिषद्) (paramahamsa upaniṣad) (paramahansa upaniṣad).
It is categorized as one of the Sannyasa (Sanyasa) Upanishads. According to Sri Madhwacharya Ji, Paramahamsa is one of the avatars of Lord Sri Vishnu himself.
In this avatar of Paramahamsa, Lord Sri Vishnu imparted Vedas to Lord Sri Brahma Deva in the form of Divine Swan (Hamsa / Hansa).
The Paramahamsa Upanishad is a discourse between the Lord Sri Brahma Deva and Maharishi Narada.
Lord Sri Brahma Deva and Maharishi Narada’s conversation gives importance to the attributes of Paramahamsa (highest soul) Yogi.
The Paramahamsa Upanishad explains a Sannyasi (Sanyasi / monk) as a Jivanmukta (a liberated soul) while alive, and Videhamukta is liberation in afterlife.
2(20). Amritabindu Upanishad : In Sanskrit Amritabindu Upanishad is written as अमृतबिन्दोपनिषद् (amr̥tabindōpaniṣad) (अमृतबिन्दु उपनिषद्) (amr̥tabindu upaniṣad).
The Amritabindu Upanishad condemns the bookish learning and give importance on continuous practice, as well as for presenting a six limbed Yoga system.
This six limbed Yoga system match five stages of the eight stage Patanjali’s Yogasutras and offering a unique, different sixth stage.
2(21). Amrita Nadabindu Upanishad : In simple words this text is known as Nadabindu Upanishad (नादबिन्दोपनिषद्) (nādabindōpaniṣad) (नादबिन्दु उपनिषद्) (nādabindu upaniṣad).
In Sanskrit this text is written as अमृत नादबिन्दु उपनिषद् (amr̥ta nādabindu upaniṣad) (अमृतनादबिन्दोपनिषद्) (amr̥tanādabindōpaniṣad).
Sometimes, this Upanishad is also known as ‘Amrita-Nada-Bindu Upanishad‘. In Sanskrit it is written as अमृतनादबिन्दोपनिषद् (amr̥tanādabindōpaniṣad).
The Nadabindu Upanishad is composed in poetic style. The text Nadabindu Upanishad opens with a metaphorical comparison of Atman (Soul, Self) as a Hamsa (Hansa) bird (swan).
This texts compares both to the ॐ (ōṁ) symbol and the Samkhya (Sankhya) theory of three Gunas.
Also, this scriptures asserts true Yoga involves meditation and renunciation from all attachments to material things.
2(22). Atharvashiras Upanishad : In Sanskrit it is written as अथर्वशिरस् उपनिषद् (atharvaśiras upaniṣad) (अथर्वशिरसोपनिषद्) (atharvaśirasōpaniṣad).
This text describes that all gods are Lord Sri Rudra Deva (Shiva), everything and everyone are Lord Sri Rudra (Shiva), and Lord Sri Rudra Deva (Shiva) is the principle found in all things.
2(23). Atharvashikha Upanishad : In Sanskrit Atharvashikha Upanishad is written as अथर्वशिखोपनिषद् (atharvaśīkhōpaniṣad) (अथर्वशिख उपनिषद्) (atharvaśikha upaniṣad).
The Atharvashikha Upanishad is composed via the voice of the Rishi Atharvan, to whom the Atharva (Atharvana) Veda is excessively attributed.
The word Atharvashikha = Atharva + Shikha = Tip of the Atharvan. Shikha also means “a particular hymn or formula” and “jata (जटा)“.
The Atharvashikha Upanishad talks and equates ॐ (ōṁ) symbol to Lord Shiva.
2(24). Maitrayaniya Upanishad : In Sanskrit Maitrayaniya Upanishad is written as मैत्रायणीयोपनिषद् (maitrāyaṇīyōpaniṣad) (मैत्रायणीय उपनिषद्) (maitrāyaṇīya upaniṣad).
Maitrayaniya Upanishad is also called as Maitri Upanishad (Related to Rishi Maitreya).
This texts mainly deals with the concept and nature of Atman (Self), the question of “how is joy possible?” and “how one can achieve Moksha / Mukti (liberation)?”.
2(25). Kaushitaki Upanishad : Kaushitaki Upanishad in Sanskrit is written as कौषीतकियोपनिषद् (kauṣītakiyōpaniṣad) (कौषीतकि उपनिषद्) (kauṣītaki upaniṣad).
This Upanishad is also called as Kaushitaki Brahmana Upanishad (कौषीतकि ब्राह्मण उपनिषद्).
This Kaushitaki Upanishad talks about rebirth and transmigration of Atman (Self), life is affected by Karma, and then it also discusses whether there is Moksha (liberation) and freedom from the cycles of birth and rebirth.
2(26). Brihajjabala Upanishad : In Sanskrit Brihajjabala Upanishad is known as बृहज्जाबालोपिनषद् (br̥hajjābālōpaniṣad) (बृहज्जाबाल उपनिषद्) (br̥hajjābāla upaniṣad).
This text explains the process of producing Vibhuti (Bhasma) (sacred ash), methods of using it for Tilaka Tripundra on various parts of the body, and its meaning. The text also mentions Rudraksha as prayer beads.
2(27). Nrisimha Tapaniya Upanishad : In Sanskrit it is written as नृसिंह तापनीय उपनिषद् or नृसिंहतापनीयोपनिषद् (nr̥sinha tāpanīya upaniṣad or nr̥sinhatāpanīyōpaniṣad).
The text Nrisimha Tapaniya Upanishad is noteworthy which affirms a fourfold identity, that Atman (soul, self) is same as the below:
ॐ (ōṁ), Brahman (Absolute Reality), Lord Sri Vishnu’s avatar of Man-Lion avatar, Nrisimha (Narasimha).
2(28). Kalagni Rudra Upanishad : In Sanskrit Kalagni Rudra Upanishad is written as कालाग्निरुद्रोपनिषद् (kālāgnirudrōpaniṣad) (कालाग्नि रुद्र उपनिषद्) (kālāgni rudra upaniṣad).
The Kalagni Rudra Upanishad is a dialogue by Kalagni Rudra (Lord Shiva) to Sanatkumara about Tripundra, that consists three horizontal lines of sacred ash on the forehead.
2(29). Maitreya Upanishad : In Sanskrit Maitreya Upanishad is written as मैत्रेयोपनिषद् (maitrēyōpaniṣad) (मैत्रेय उपनिषद्) (maitrēya upaniṣad).
The Maitreya Upanishad clarifies the renunciation and self-knowledge is the path to Moksha / Mukti (liberation).
Rishi Maitreya says in this Upanishad that, “the Lord (Lord Sri Vishnu) is within the heart of each person, he is the witness of all, and the object of the ultimate love“.
2(30). Subala Upanishad : In Sanskrit Subala Upanishad is written as सुबालोपनिषद् (subālōpaniṣad) (सुबाल उपनिषद्) (subāla upaniṣad).
The Subala Upanishad text along with the Mudgala Upanishad, are the two Upanishads that talks about the Purusha Sukta of Rigveda.
Both Subala Upanishad and Mudgala Upanishad authenticates that Lord Narayana (Lord Sri Vishnu) is the one and only Brahman (Highest Reality, Supreme Personality).
2(31). Kshurika Upanishad : In Sanskrit Kshurika Upanishad is written as क्षुरिकोपनिषद् (kṣurikōpaniṣad) (क्षुरिक उपनिषद्) (kṣurika upaniṣad).
In the divine language of Sanskrit, the word Kshurika means ‘razor‘, and in Kshurika Upanishad, it signifies Yoga (Yogasana) being a tool to cut oneself away from Maya (illusion) and errors.
The Kshuruka Upanishad includes different sections on Yoga postures, Pranayama (breath exercises) and withdrawal of senses from outside to inside as a means to cleanse the body and mind.
The aim of Yogasana as per Kshurika Upanishad, is to know and liberate one’s atma (soul).
2(32). Mantrika Upanishad : In Sanskrit Mantrika Upanishad is written as मन्त्रिकोपनिषद् (māntrikōpaniṣad) (मन्त्रिक उपनिषद्) (māntrika upaniṣad).
The Mantrika Upanishad is also called Culika Upanishad (चूलिका उपनिषद् / cūlikā upaniṣad). Mantrika Upanishad was narrated by Lord Sri Rama to Hanuman.
The Mantrika Upanishad contains 21 verses. It attempts a syncretic but unsystematic formulation of ideas from Samkhya (Sankhya), Yoga, Vedanta and Bhakti (devotion).
2(33). Sarvasara Upanishad : In Sanskrit Sarvasara Upanishad is written as सर्वसारोपनिषद् (sarvasārōpaniṣad) (सर्वसार उपनिषद्) (sarvasāra upaniṣad).
This text of Sarvasara Upanishad is composed in the style of glossary of Vedanta terms.
The Sarvasara Upanishad begins by listing twenty three questions. For example, what is Moksha (Liberation), what is Avidya (Ignorance) and what is Vidya (Knowledge)? etc.
Later, Sarvasara Upanishad gives the answers for all the twenty three answers.
2(34). Niralamba Upanishad : In Sanskrit Niralamba Upanishad is written as निरालम्बोपनिषद् (nirālambōpaniṣad) (निरालम्ब उपनिषद्) (nirālamba upaniṣad).
In the Niralamba Upanishad, it is said that that all men, women, all living beings, Hindu Deities such as Lord Sri Vishnu, Lord Sri Brahma Deva, Lord Sri Rudra Deva (Shiva), Lord Sri Indra, etc. are in their essence just the same ultimate reality that is, Brahman.
(As per the explanation by great saints, all these are the names of Lord Sri Vishnu himself and thus the Supreme God is Lord Sri Vishnu himself.)
2(35). Shukarahasya Upanishad : In Sanskrit Shukarahasya Upanishad is written as शुकरहस्योपनिषद् (śukarahasyōpaniṣad) (शुकरहस्य उपनिषद्) (śukarahasya upaniṣad).
In this Shukarahasya, Shuka means Shuka Muni (Shukacharya) and Rahasya means the secret knowledge with Shuka Muni.
The Shukarahasya Upanishad informs that, sages asking Lord Sri Brahma Deva to teach them the Rahasya Upanishad (Secret knowledge).
Lord Sri Brahma Deva replies that he will recite to them what Lord (Sage) Sri Vedavyasa, the composer of the four Vedas, once learnt from Lord Shiva, when Lord (Sage) Sri Vedavyasa asked for advice on educating his own son named Shuka Muni.
[Here Lord (Sage) Sri Vedavyasa Ji is an avatar of Lord Sri Vishnu and Shuka Muni (Shukacharya) is an avatar of Lord Shiva.]
2(36). Vajrasuchi Upanishad : In Sanskrit Vajrasuchi Upanishad is written as वज्रसूचोपनिषद् (vajrasūcōpaniṣad) (वज्रसूचि उपनिषद्) (vajrasūci upaniṣad).
The Vajrasuchi Upanishad informs that there are four varnas, that is, the Brahmana (Brahmin), the Kshatriya, the Vaishya and the Shudra.
The Brahmana (Brahmin), is declared by Smriti to be chief. But the inside meaning is, this social division is justified by Jiva (life, soul), Jnana (gyan) (knowledge), Karma (deeds), Dharmic (virtues) and not at all by birth.
2(37). Tejobindu Upanishad : In Sanskrit Tejobindu Upanishad is written as तेजोबिन्दोपनिषद् (tējōbindōpaniṣad) (तेजोबिन्दू उपनिषद्) (tējōbindu upaniṣad).
Tejobindu Upanishad informs that meditation is very difficult, but definitely empowering.
The Tejobindu Upanishad does not encourage the scriptural studies, but rather encourages the practice of practical meditation.
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