List of Hindu texts names – Part 3 of 4 (With basic information) (scriptures) (Granthas) (Holy Books) (treatise)
Namaste friends, how are you doing today? Welcome to #BhagavanBhakthi website / blog.
Bhagavan Lord Sri Krishna (Vishnu) (Rama) blessings to you and your family!
In this website / blog, you will always learn about #Hinduism #Sanskrit language.
Also subscribe to my YouTube channel from this link #BhagavanBhakthi to view videos about #Hinduism #Sanskrit language.
Just before going to “List of Hindu texts names (scriptures) (Granthas) (Holy Books) (treatise) – Part 3 of 4“, let us know a brief, basic and very important information.
This is been continued from “List of Hindu texts names (scriptures) (Granthas) (Holy Books) (treatise) – Part 1 and Part 2”
2(88). Rudrakshajabala Upanishad : In simple words this Upanishad is also called as Rudrasha Upanishad (रुद्राक्ष उपनिषद्) (rudrākṣa upaniṣad).
In Sanskrit this Upanishad is written as रुद्राक्षजाबाल उपनिषद् (rudrākṣajābāla upaniṣad) (रुद्राक्षजाबालोपनिषद्) (rudrākṣajābālōpaniṣad).
This Upanishad talks about the invocation to Brahman, the Supreme Reality for the welfare of all parts of the body, the prana (spirit), and speech.
Rudrakshajabala Upanishad is devoted to the Rudraksha (A sacred seed, which is auspicious to the Lord Shiva.
2(89). Ganapati Upanishad : This text is also known as Gana Upanishad (गण उपनिषद्) (gaṇa upaniṣad) or Ganopanishad (गणोपनिषद्) (gaṇōpaniṣad) or Ganapati Atharvashirsha (गणपति अथर्वशीर्ष) (gaṇapati atharvaśīrṣa).
This Upanishad asserts that Lord Ganesha as the ultimate reality, Brahman.
Lord Ganesha is explained as the ultimate truth and reality (Brahman), as Satchidananda, as the soul in oneself (Atman) and in every living being, as ॐ (ōṁ) in this Upanishad.
2(90). Darshana Upanishad : In Sanskrit this Upanishad is written as दर्शन उपनिषद् (darśana upaniṣad) (दर्शनोपनिषद्) (darśanōpaniṣad).
The Darshana Upanishad presents a amalgamation of Hatha Yoga and eight limbed Patanjali Yogasutras methodology, on a foundation of Vedanta and Yoga philosophies.
This Upanishad is designed as a discourse by Lord Sri Dattatreya to Rishi (Sage) Sankriti on Yoga.
2(91). Tarasara Upanishad : In Sanskrit this Upanishad is written as तारसार उपनिषद् (tārasāra upaniṣad) (तारसारोपनिषद्) (tārasārōpaniṣad).
This Upanishad mainly discusses about ॐ (ōṁ) for yogic meditation as Taraka or that which helps one cross from material world into spiritual life.
This text indicates “ॐ नमो नारायणाय” (Om Namo Narayana) (ōṁ namō nārāyaṇāya) mantra and also talks about the ॐ (ōṁ) mantra, and amalgamates into its sound with the following characters of the epic Ramayana –
Lord Sri Rama, Goddess Sri Sita Devi, Lakshmana, Hanuman, Bharata (Bharat), Shatrughna and Jambavan.
2(92). Mahavakya Upanishad : In Sanskrit this Upanishad is written as महावाक्य उपनिषद् (mahāvākya upaniṣad) (महावाक्योपनिषद्) (mahāvākyōpaniṣad).
Mahavakya Upanishad explains the nature of Atman (self, soul) and Brahman (Supreme reality), then also adds that they are identical and liberation is the state of fully understanding this identity.
2(93). Panchabrahma Upanishad : In Sanskrit this text is written as पञ्चब्रह्म उपनिषद् (pan̄cabrahma upaniṣad) (पञ्चब्रह्मोपनिषद्) (pan̄cabrahmōpaniṣad).
Panchabrahma Upanishad eulogizes Lord Shiva, with Vedanta non-dualism terminology.
The Upanishad mainly focuses on Lord Sadashiva (Shiva), as Brahman with five faces corresponding to five Ishwaras (Lords).
And also recommends on the meditation on “सोहम्” (sōhaṁ) or “I am he, He is I am” to achieve Moksha (liberation).
2(94). Pranagnihotra Upanishad : In Sanskrit this is written as प्राणाग्निहोत्र उपनिषद् (prāṇāgnihōtra upaniṣad) (प्राणाग्निहोत्रोपनिषद्) (prāṇāgnihōtrōpaniṣad).
This Pranagnihotra = Prana + Agni + Hotra = Hotra (sacrifice) offered to the Agni (fire) of Prana (breath).
The Pranagnihotra Upanishad talks about the universal Atman (soul) (God) is within one self, all Vedic Devatas (Demigods) are embodied in the human body giving one various abilities.
2(95). Gopala Tapani Upanishad : In Sanskrit it is written as गोपाल तापनी उपनिषद् (gōpāla tāpanī upaniṣad) (गोपालतापनोपनिषद्) (gōpālatāpanōpaniṣad).
This text gives importance for its lifting metric structure, its mention of ancient cultural elements like musical instruments and embedded philosophical premises.
This Upanishad is one of the most cited texts in later Bhasyas (commentaries) by great saints from the diverse schools of Sanatana Dharma.
2(96). Krishna Upanishad : In Sanskrit this Upanishad is written as कृष्ण उपनिषद् (kr̥ṣṇa upaniṣad) (कृष्णोपनिषद्) (kr̥ṣṇōpaniṣad).
The great Krishna Upanishad talks about how Lord Sri Rama (Vishnu) took avatar as Lord Sri Krishna, and how various divinities and virtues became people or objects in Lord Sri Krishna‘s life.
2(97). Yajnavalkya Upanishad : In Sanskrit Yagnavalkya Upanishad is written as याज्ञवल्क्य उपनिषद् (yājñavalkya upaniṣad) (याज्ञवल्क्योपनिषद्) (yājñavalkyōpaniṣad).
This text explains the state and expected conduct from a Sannyasi (Sanyasi) (Hindu Monk) as he leads the ascetic life after renouncing all material and social ties.
2(98). Varaha Upanishad : In Sanskrit this text is written as वराह उपनिषद् (varāha upaniṣad) (वराहोपनिषद्) (varāhōpaniṣad).
The Varaha Upanishad mainly structured as a conversation between Lord Sri Varaha (Vishnu avatar) and the Rishi (Sage) Ribhu.
The conversation contains the subjects like Tattvas, the nature and relationship between the individual Atman (Self) and Brahma (Supreme Reality), the seven stages of learning, the characteristics of Jivanmukti (inner sense of freedom while living), and the four types of Jivanmuktas (liberated persons).
2(99). Shatyayaniya Upanishad : This Upanishad in simple words is also called as Shatyayani Upanishad (शाट्यायनी उपनिषद्) (śāṭyāyanī upaniṣad).
In Sanskrit this Upanishad is written as शाट्यायनीय उपनिषद् (śāṭyāyanīya upaniṣad) (शाट्यायनीयोपनिषद्) (śāṭyāyanīyōpaniṣad).
This text gives importance about the Sannyasa and emphasizes about the non-dualism, same renunciation rites and outlook, the use of yoga, meditation on ॐ (ōṁ) and Brahman, pursuit of living liberation.
This text also adds information about the virtuous simple life that journeys towards and with self-knowledge calling Lord Sri Vishnu as the “very self, and into whom the renouncers enter and get liberated“.
2(100). Hayagriva Upanishad : In Sanskrit this Upanishad is written as हयग्रीव उपनिषद् (hayagrīva upaniṣad) (हयग्रीवोपनिषद्) (hayagrīvōpaniṣad).
This Upanishad is narrated by Lord Sri Brahma Deva to Devarishi (Sage) Narada.
This text is is a minor Upanishad, devoted to Lord Sri Hayagriva (Horse faced avatar of Lord Sri Vishnu).
This Hayagriva Upanishad gives mantras to know the nature of the supreme reality Brahman (Lord Sri Vishnu).
2(101). Dattatreya Upanishad : In Sanskrit this text is written as दत्तात्रेय उपनिषद् (dattātrēya upaniṣad) (दत्तात्रेयोपनिषद्) (dattātrēyōpaniṣad).
The Dattatreya Upanishad is a Tantra work and presents a mantra that is the most popular mantra in Dattatreya tradition.
This Upanishad describes that the worship of Lord Sri Vishnu (Narayana) and Lord Sri Dattatreya (An avatar of Vishnu) leads one to the nature of Truth-Bliss-Knowledge.
2(102). Garuda Upanishad : In Sanskrit Garuda Upanishad is written as गरुड उपनिषद् (garuḍa upaniṣad) (गरुडोपनिषद्) (garuḍōpaniṣad).
This text has mantras and charms that are said to cure problems related to poison.
The Garuda Upanishad talks about the charms that not only can prevent the snakebite, but also poisons related to other poisonous animals, weapons and supernatural beings.
2(103). Kali Santarana Upanishad : In simple words this Upanishad is also called as Kali Upanishad (कलि उपनिषद्) (kali upaniṣad).
In Sanskrit this text is written as कलि सन्तरण उपनिषद् (kali santaraṇa upaniṣad) (कलिसन्तरणोपनिषद्) (kalisantaraṇōpaniṣad).
In this text the Maha Mantra called as “हरे कृष्ण हरे कृष्ण कृष्ण कृष्ण हरे हरे | हरे राम हरे राम राम राम हरे हरे ||” (harē kr̥ṣṇa harē kr̥ṣṇa kr̥ṣṇa kr̥ṣṇa harē harē | harē rāma harē rāma rāma rāma harē harē ||) is present.
2(104). Jabali Upanishad : In Sanskrit this Upanishad is written as जाबालि उपनिषद् (jābāli upaniṣad) (जाबालोपनिषद्) (jābālōpaniṣad).
This Upanishad is structured as a discussion between Rishi (Sage) Jabali to Rishi (Sage) Pippalada.
The text gives importance about presenting the Pashupata theology.
Jabala Upanishad describes about Pashu and Pata means and also about the Vibhuti (ash) on one’s forehead.
2(105). Saubhagya Lakshmi Upanishad : In simple words this text is also called as Saubhagya Upanishad (सौभाग्य उपनिषद्) (saubhāgya upaniṣad).
In Sanskrit this text is written as सौभाग्य लक्ष्मी उपनिषद् (saubhāgya lakṣmī upaniṣad) (सौभाग्यलक्ष्मोपनिषद्) (saubhāgyalakṣmōpaniṣad).
This text explains the ideas through Goddess Sri Lakshmi Devi.
The Upanishad talks about the true wealth, and then later introduces Yoga for spiritual attainment away from material expectations and towards inner wealth.
2(106). Sarasvati Rahasya Upanishad : In Sanskrit this is written as सरस्वती रहस्य उपनिषद् (sarasvati rahasya upaniṣad) (सरस्वतीरहस्योपनिषद्) (sarasvatīrahasyōpaniṣad).
This text eulogizes the female part as the Shakti (power) and as the Brahman, and extensively uses a combination of devotion and Vedanta terminology.
2(107). Bahvricha Upanishad : In Sanskrit it is written as बह्वृच उपनिषद् (bahuvr̥ca upaniṣad) (बह्वृचोपनिषद्) (bahuvr̥cōpaniṣad).
This text explains that Atman (Self) is a Devi (Goddess) who alone existed before the creation of the universe.
Upanishad asserts that Devi (Goddess) is the Supreme power, she is the Brahman (Supreme reality).
2(108). Muktika Upanishad : In Sanskrit this text is written as मुक्तिका उपनिषद् (muktikā upaniṣad) (मुक्तिकोपनिषद्) (muktikōpaniṣad).
In this Upanishad, Lord Sri Rama gives a list of all the 108 Upanishads names to Hanuman.
3. Aranyakas : In Sanskrit it is written as आरण्यक (āraṇyaka). Aranyaka (āraṇyaka) is derived from the Sanskrit word Aranya (अरण्य) (araṇya).
Since it is derived from the Sanskrit word Aranya (अरण्य) (araṇya), it is called as Aranyaka (āraṇyaka).
In Sanskrit Aranyaka (āraṇyaka) means “something produced or belongs or born or started or inside a forest“.
The Aranyakas (āraṇyaka) are the part of the ancient Indian Vedas concerned with the meaning of ritual sacrifice.
Aranyakas (āraṇyaka) basically typically represent the later sections of the Vedas, and are one of many layers of the Hindu Vedic texts.
Aranyakas (āraṇyaka) are typically identified as कर्मकाण्ड (Karma Kanda), that is, basically these texts are used in daily ritualistic or sacrificial works.
And on the other hand, the Upanishads are typically identified as ज्ञानकाण्ड (Jnana / Gyan Kanda), that is, basically these texts are used in knowledge or spiritual works.
The different Aranyakas (āraṇyaka) are as given below:
3(1). Aitareya Aranyaka : In Sanskrit it is written as ऐतरेय आरण्यक (ētareya āraṇyaka).
This Aitareya Aranyaka was written by Aitareya Mahidasa, that is, an avatar of Lord Sri Vishnu himself.
Aitaraya Aranyaka includes the information about Maha Vrata, Prana Vidya, (life-breath of a living body), etc.
3(2). Sankhyayana Aranyaka : In Sanskrit it is written as सान्ख्यायन आरण्यक (sāṅkhyāyana āraṇyaka).
This Aranyaka contents in the Maha Vrata, Prana, Agnihotra ritual, results of prayer, etc. This is also called as Kaushitaki Aranyaka.
3(3). Taittiriya Aranyaka : In Sanskrit it is written as तैत्तिरीय आरण्यक (taittiriya āraṇyaka).
This Aranyaka discusses about the eight Kathaka sections and mostly deal with varieties of the Agnicayana ritual.
3(4). Brihad Aranyaka : In Sanskrit it is written as बृहद् आरण्यक (br̥had āraṇyaka).
This Aranyaka is similar to Taittiriya Aranyaka and Katha Aranyaka and it deals with the Parvargya ritual.
3(5). Katha Aranyaka : In Sanskrit it is written as कठ आरण्यक (kaṭha āraṇyaka). The Katha Aranyaka is fairly similar to the text of the Taittiriyas.
4. Vedangas : In Sanskrit Vedangas is written as वेदाङ्ग (vēdāṅga). Whereas the meaning of the word Vedangas in Sanskrit means, “parts of the Vedas” or “limbs of the Vedas“.
The different types of Vedangas are as given below:
Shiksha (शिक्षा) (śikṣā), Chandas (छन्दस्) (chandas), Vyakarana (व्याकरण) (vyākaraṇa), Nirukta (निरुक्त) (nirukta), Jyotisha (ज्योतिष) (jyōtiṣa), and Kalpa (कल्प) (kalpa).
4(1). Shiksha : The first type of the Vedanga is called as Shiksha. Shiksha gives importance to ध्वनि शिक्षा (dhvani śikṣā), that is, phonetics, pronunciation.
This Vedanga deals with the letters of the Sanskrit alphabet, accent and rules of euphonic combination of words during a Vedic recitation.
4(2). Chandas : This type of Vedanga gives importance to the poetic meters, including those based on fixed number of syllables per verse.
The use of this Vedanga is about reading and reciting of the Vedic hymns. The Chandas discusses the number of syllables in texts and poems which is linked to meter.
This Chandas part is often referred to as the feet of the Veda Purusha (Lord Sri Vishnu).
4(3). Vyakarana : This deals with the grammar and linguistic analysis of the Sanskrit language to establish the exact form of words and sentences to properly express ideas.
Vyakarana is called the mouth of the Veda Purusha (Lord Sri Vishnu) and is also seen as crucial for understanding the Vedas.
4(4). Nirukta : Nirukta deals with the etymology of the Sanskrit language and also handles the explanation of words, especially those that are classical in nature and have ancient uses with unclear meaning.
This part of the Vedanka (Nirukta) is called as the ears of the Veda Purusha (Lord Sri Vishnu).
4(5). Jyotisha : Jyotisha is very important part of Vedangas which discusses about the right time for rituals with the help of position of nakshatras and astronomy.
Jyotisha is not about the teaching of astronomy, but the use of astronomy like to fix the appropriate time, day, etc. for the sacrifice(s).
Jyotisha is known as the eye of the Veda Purusha (Lord Sri Vishnu).
4(6). Kalpa : This deals with the ritualistic instructions. This field gives importance about the standardizing procedures for Vedic rituals.
For example the rites of passage rituals associated with major life events like birth, wedding and death in family.
Also, this Vedanga discusses about the personal conduct and proper duties of an individual in different stages of his life.
Kalpa is known as the arms of the Veda Purusha (Lord Sri Vishnu).
5. Smriti : In Sanskrit Smriti is written as स्मृति (smr̥ti). Smriti in Sanskrit means remembering or in simple word called as “memory“.
The smritis aim at outlining and giving a picture of how to “live a happy and satisfied life” in a way to fulfill the purpose of life, thus make life meaningful.
5(1). Manusmriti : In Sanskrit it is written as मनुस्मृति (manusmr̥ti) मनु स्मृति (manu smr̥ti).
Manusmriti, in Sanskrit is called as “Manava Dharma Shastra” (The Dharma Text of Manu). Traditionally the most authoritative of the books of the Hindu code (Dharma-shastra) in India.
5(2). Vyasa Smriti. 5(3). Narada Smriti. 5(4). Brihaspati Smriti. 5(5). Yajnavalkya Smriti. 5(6). Laghu Vishnu Smriti. 5(7). Apstamba Smriti. 5(8). Vasishtha Smriti. 5(9). Parashara Smriti.
5(10). Brihat Parashara Smriti. 5(11). Atri Smriti. 5(12). Laghu Shankh Smriti. 5(13). Vishwamitra Smriti. 5(14). Yama Smriti. 5(15). Laghu Smriti. 5(16). Brihadyama Smriti.
5(17). Vriddha Shatatapa Smriti. 5(18). Shatatapa Smriti. 5(19). Laghu Shatatapa Smriti. 5(20). Vriddha Gautam Smriti. 5(21). Brihaspati Smriti. 5(22). Yajnavalkya Smriti. 5(23). Brihadyogi Yajnavalkya Smriti.
6. UpaVeda : In Sanskrit it is written as उप वेद (upa vēda) (उपवेद) (upavēda). These are the sub-parts of the Vedas.
6(1). Ayurveda : In Sanskrit Ayurveda is written as आयुर्वेद (āyurvēda). This is associated with Rig Veda.
The term Ayurveda in Sanskrit means आयुस् + वेद, that is, here आयुस् (āyus) means “longevity of life“, and वेद (vēda) means “knowledge“. In total this means, “knowledge about the longevity of life“.
6(2). Dhanurveda : In Sanskrit Dhanurveda is written as धनुर्वेद (dhanurvēda). This is associated with Yajurveda.
In Sanskrit धनुर् (dhanur) means archery and वेद (vēda) means “knowledge“, that is, Dhanurveda deals with the “Science / knowledge of archery”.
6(3). Gandharvaveda : In Sanskrit Gandharvaveda is written as गन्धर्ववेद (gandharvavēda). This is associated with Samaveda.
In Sanskrit Gandharvas are the group of Devatas (Demigods) who are related with Singing and Dancing. Gandharvaveda = गन्धर्व (gandharva) + वेद (vēda).
Gandharvaveda describes about the Indian classical music, Raga, Sura, Singing, Dancing, instruments, etc.
6(4). Arthashastra : In Sanskrit Arthashastra is written as अर्थशास्त्र (arthaśāstra) अर्थ शास्त्र (artha śāstra).
In Sanskrit Arthashastra = अर्थ (artha) + शास्त्र (śāstra) = Economics + Science (Knowledge).
The Arthashastra mainly deals with economics, military, statecraft, political science, etc.
7. Itihasa (Epics) : In Sanskrit Itihasa is written as इतिहास (itihāsa). These are called as Itihasa (history) as it showcases India’s past.
7(1). Ramayana : Ramayana mainly describes the story of Lord Sri Rama along with other Devatas like Goddess Sri Sita Devi, Lord Hanuman, Lakshmana, Bharata, Shatrughna, Vali, Sugriva, etc.
7(2). Mahabharata : Mahabharata mainly narrates the story of Lord Sri Krishna, Pandavas (Yudhishthira, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula, Sahadeva), Kauravas, etc.
8. Sutras : In Sanskrit Sutra (Sutras) is written as सूत्र (sūtra).
The Sanskrit word Sutra means “string or thread“. The orginal meaning of the Sanskrit word Sutra means, “which can sew and hold things together“.
8(1). Brahma Sutra : In Sanskrit Brahma Sutra is written as ब्रह्म सूत्र (brahma sūtra) (ब्रह्मसूत्र) (brahmasūtra).
Brahma Sutra is also called as Vedanta Sutra and was written by Lord (Sage) Sri Vedavyasa ji, an avatar of Lord Sri Vishnu. Lord (Sage) Sri Vedavyasa Ji originally called as Badarayana.
The Brahma Sutras primarily discusses about the nature of human existence and universe, and ideas about the metaphysical principle of Brahman (Supreme Reality).
8(2). Narada Bhakti Sutra : In Sanskrit Narada Bhakti Sutra is written as नारद भक्ति सूत्र (nārada bhakti sūtra) (नारदभक्तिसूत्र) (nāradabhaktisūtra).
The Narada Bhakti Sutra is a famous text and is reportedly spoken by the famous Devarishi (Sage) Narada.
The text narrates about the process of bhakti (devotion) or Bhakti Yoga and is thus this text is highly important in the Bhakti movements, especially among the Vaishnavas.
8(3). Nyaya Sutras : In Sanskrit Nyaya Sutras is written as न्याय सूत्र (n’yāya sūtra) (न्यायसूत्र) (n’yāyasūtra).
The Nyaya sutras gives informationa bout Taraka Vidya, Vada Vidya (वाद विद्या) (knowledge about debate).
8(4). Purva Mimamsa Sutras : In Sanskrit it is written as पूर्व मिमांस सूत्र (pūrva mimāmsa sūtra) (पूर्वमिमांससूत्र) (pūrvamimānsasūtra).
This text gives information about the rules for the interpretation of the Vedas and also provides philosophical justifications for the observance of Vedic rituals, by offering meaning and significance of Vedic rituals to attain Moksha (Liberation).
8(5). Samkhya Sutra : In Sanskrit it is written as संख्या सूत्र (sāṅkhya sūtra)(sāṁkhya sūtra).
Samkhya Sutra is also called as “Samkhya Pravachana Sutra“. It was first composed by Rishi (Sage) Kapila, an avatar of Lord Sri Vishnu.
Samkhya Sutra explains about the philosophy of the Samkhya school knowledge.
8(6). Shiva Sutras : In Sanskrit Shiva Sutras is written शिव सूत्र (śiva sūtra) (शिवसूत्र) (śivasūtra).
The Shiva Sutras is also called as महेश्वराणि सूत्राणि (māheśvarāṇi sūtrāṇi), प्रत्याहार सूत्राणि (pratyāhāra sūtrāṇi), etc..
Shiva Sutras mainly deals with an arrangement of the sounds (14 sounds) for the purposes of grammatical exposition as carried out by the grammarian Pāṇini in the Aṣṭādhyāyī.
Lord Shiva sounded his drum fourteen times to reveal these sounds to Pāṇini.
8(7). Vaisheshika Sutras : In Sanskrit Vaisheshika Sutra is written as वैशेषिक सूत्र (vaiśēṣika sūtra). This belong to the Vaisheshika School of tradition.
The Vaisheshika Sutra presents the theories on the creation and existence of the universe using naturalistic atomism.
8(8). Yoga Sutras : In Sanskrit Yoga Sutra is written as योग सूत्र (yōga sūtra). This mainly deals with the Yoga Sutras given by Rishi (Sage) Patanjali.
The Yoga Sutras was compiled by the Rishi (Sage) Patanjali who synthesized and organized knowledge about yoga from much older traditions.
To watch videos on #Hinduism #Sanskrit language, SUBSCRIBE to my YouTube channel from this below link:
Continue reading about “List of Hindu texts names (With basic information) (scriptures) (Granthas) (Holy Books) (treatise)” from these below links:
Dear friends, if you need any clarifications about this post, kindly let me know, I will definitely try to answer all of them.
Also your one LIKE, one COMMENT, One Share, one SUBSCRIPTION is highly important.
This will help to know the quality of this content and also it will be helpful to know if any improvements is required for the content.
If you feel this content is useful to you and has helped you to improve your knowledge, kindly share this with your well-wishers.
Because “SHARING MEANS CARING”.
For receive FREE EMAIL SUBSCRIPTION about #BhagavanBhakthi, you can send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org from your email ID.
Sri Gurubhyo namaha
Om Sri Krishnaaya namaha
Sri KrishnaarpanamastuShare in Social Media