List of Hindu texts names – Part 4 of 4 (With basic information) (scriptures) (Granthas) (Holy Books) (treatise)
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Just before going to “List of Hindu texts names (scriptures) (Granthas) (Holy Books) (treatise) – Part 4 of 4“, let us know a brief, basic and very important information.
This is been continued from “List of Hindu texts names (scriptures) (Granthas) (Holy Books) (treatise) – Part 1, Part 2, and Part 3”
9. Puranas : In Sanskrit Purana is written as पुराण (purāṇa). Purana means “ancient stories of Indian history“.
Puranas have vast amount of the history which covers wide range of topics, particularly about real legends and other traditional lore of India (Bharata Varsha / Bharat Varsh).
The list of Puranas names are as given below:
9(1). Brahma Purana : In Sanskrit Brahma Purana is written as ब्रह्म पुराण (brahma purāṇa).
This was originally recited by Lord Brahma to the Rishi (Sage) Marichi and has thirteen thousand shlokas.
This text should be donated on a full moon night (Purnima) in the month of Vaishakha. Such a donation brings undying punya.
Brahma Purana is listed as the first Maha Purana (Great or Major Purana) in all the anthologies, and thus this Purana also known as आदि पुराण (Adi Purana) (ādi purāṇa).
Brahma Purana is also known as सौर पुराण (Saura Purana) (saura purāṇa), because it contains many related chapters of Lord Sri Surya Deva (Sun God).
This Purana is actually just a compilation of geographical Mahatmya (Greatness) and sections on diverse topics of Indian ancient history.
9(2). Padma Purana : In Sanskrit Padma Purana is written as पद्म पुराण (padma purāṇa).
This has fifty-five thousand shlokas and should be donated in the month of Jyeshtha.
Padma Purana is named after the Padma (lotus flower) on which Lord Sri Brahma Deva (Creator god) appeared from the nabhi (navel) of Lord Sri Vishnu.
This Purana includes large sections of stories devoted to Lord Sri Vishnu, as also a significant sections on others like Lord Sri Brahma Deva, Lord Shiva and Goddess Shakti.
Padma Purana says that, one who thoroughly understand the different descriptions of the opulences and expansions of Lord Sri Krishna and his energy.
Then one can indeed understand without any doubt the position of Lord Sri Krishna and can fix his (reader) mind in the worship of Lord Sri Krishna without any deviation.
9(3). Vishnu Purana : In Sanskrit Vishnu Purana is written as विष्णु पुराण (viṣṇu purāṇa).
This was first recited by the Rishi (Sage) Parashara and has twenty-three thousand shlokas. It is auspicious to donate this text in the month of Ashada.
Vishnu Purana contains the discussion between Rishi (Sage) Maitreya and his Guru Rishi (Sage) Parashara, with the Rishi (Sage) Maitreya asking like this:
“What is the nature of our universe and everything it contains?”
The Vishnu Purana talks about the cosmology, dealing with the creation, maintenance and destruction of the whole universe.
The importance of the worship of Lord Sri Vishnu is explained in the 22 chapters of this Purana as the path for Moksha (liberation)
Also, this Purana contains the information about the profuse use of the synonymous names of Lord Sri Vishnu like हृषीकेश (Hrishikesha) (hr̥ṣīkēśa), माधव (Madhava) (mādhava), अच्युत (Achyuta) (acyuta), हरि (Hari) (hari), etc.
9(4). Vayu Purana : In Sanskrit Vayu Purana is written as वायु पुराण (vāyu purāṇa).
This has twenty-four thousand shlokas and was first recited by the Lord Sri Vayu Deva (Wind God). It should be donated in the month of Shravana.
The Vayu Purana narrates the theories about the cosmology, genealogy of Devatas (Demigods) and the Great Kings of both Solar Dynasty and Lunar Dynasty.
This Purana also mentions information about the mythology, geography, Manvantaras, the Solar System and the movements of the celestial bodies.
Similarly, Vayu Purana talks about the duties of the Varna (caste or class) and duties of a person during various ashramas.
In addition to this, Vayu Purana discusses about the tapas (penances) for sannyasi (Hindu Monks), Dharma, Sanskaras (Rites of passage), and also about the theory of Naraka (Hell) in after-life.
9(5). Bhagavata Purana : Bhagavata Purana in Sanskrit is written as भागवत पुराण (bhāgavata purāṇa).
This has eighteen thousand shlokas and should be donated in the Hindu month of Bhadra, on the night of the Purnima (Full Moon).
The divine Bhagavata Purana is a devoted text for all the Vaishnavas, that is, who follow Lord Sri Vishnu.
The Purana shows that Bhakti (devotion) ultimately leads to self-knowledge, Moksha (Liberation) and bliss.
The divine and auspicious Bhagavata Purana also talks about a broad range of information including astronomy, geography, dance, cosmology, genealogy, culture, legend, music, yoga, etc.
This Purana narrates the details about the inner nature and outer form of Lord Sri Krishna is identical to the Vedas and that this is what rescues the whole world from the forces of evil.
9(6). Narada Purana : In Sanskrit Narada Purana is written as नारद पुराण (nārada purāṇa). It is also called as Naradiya Purana (नारदीय पुराण) (nāradīya purāṇa).
This was first recited by the Devarishi (Sage) Narada and has twenty-five thousand shlokas. It should be donated on the night of the new moon (amavasya) in the month of Ashvina.
The Narada Purana is dedicates the eighteen chapters on other Puranas and also one entire chapter explains about the each major Puranas.
This Purana also adds information about about the Lord Buddha avatar. The Narada Purana mainly gives importance on the Bhakti (devotion) of Lord Sri Vishnu.
Narada Purana explains about the festivals and rituals in Vaishnavism.
Also, numerous chapters of this Purana eulogizes the river Ganges, pilgrimage places and travel centers like Prayag (Prayagraj) and Varanasi (Banaras).
9(7). Markandeya Purana : In Sanskrit Markandeya Purana is written as मार्कण्डेय पुराण (mārkaṇḍēya purāṇa).
This has nine thousand shlokas. A person desirous of obtaining punya should donate this text in month of Margashirsa.
In the Markandeya Purana Rishi (Sage) Jaimini asks Maharishi (Sage) Markandeya answers about few of questions regarding the Mahabharata.
Maharishi (Sage) Markandeya narrates that he needs to go and perform some Vedic rituals, and instructs Rishi (Sage) Jaimini to meet up with four wise birds who live in the Vindhya Mountain rage.
Rishi (Sage) Jaimini meets those birds and those birds answer his questions.
This conversation will be about of Samsara (Sansar), Shraddha rituals, Dharma, Karma, etc. verses from Mahabharata and the Gautama Dharmasutras.
9(8). Agni Purana : This Sanskrit Agni Purana is written as अग्नि पुराण (agni purāṇa).
This was first recited by the fire-god Lord Sri Agni Deva to the Maharishi (Sage) Vasishtha. Later Maharishi (Sage) Vasishtha recited it to Lord (Sage) Sri Vedayvyasa Ji.
It has sixteen thousand shlokas and should be donated in the month of Margashirsha.
Both Matsya Purana and Skanda Purana describes that this Agni Purana explains about Ishana-Kalpa as described by Lord Sri Agni Deva.
Agni Purana narrates about grammar, lexicography, metrics, poetics, Tantra, Book summary, Regional geography, Medicine, etc.
Similarly, Agni Purana adds information about Buddhist incantations, Politics, Agriculture, planning, Martial arts, weapons, Cows, Hindu temple, monastery, Yoga, Moksha, etc.
9(9). Bhavishya Purana : In Sanskrit Bhavishya Purana is written as भविष्य पुराण (bhaviṣya purāṇa).
Lord Sri Brahma Deva himself was the first reciter of this Purana and it has fourteen thousand and five hundred shlokas.
It is primarily concerned with what is due to happen in the future. The text should be donated on the occasion of Purnima (full moon day), in the month of Pousha.
Bhavishya Purana covers subjects like as ceremonies, rites of passage, feasts, etc.
This great Purana also adds information about the rights and duties of a women and also conversation about the nature of people and how to recognize good and bad qualities, a caste-related discussion, etc.
9(10). Brahmavaivarta Purana : In Sanskrit Brahmavaivarta Purana (Brahma Vaivarta Purana) is written as ब्रह्मवैवर्त पुराण (brahmavaivarta purāṇa).
This was first recited by Savarni Manu to the Devarishi (Sage) Narada. It has eighteen thousand shlokas and should be donated on purnima in the month of Magha.
The Purana’s name ‘Brahmavaivarta‘ means “metamorphosis of Brahman“, that is, metamorphosis of Lord Sri Vishnu / Krishna.
This Brahmavaivarta Purana gives information about the creation by Lord Sri Krishna (Vishnu), who creates the universe and who is also present in the universe.
9(11). Linga Purana : In Sanskrit Ling Purana is written as (लिङ्ग or लिंग पुराण) (liṅga purāṇa).
Lord Sri Brahma Deva recited this first and it has eleven thousand shlokas. Punya (good deeds) is acquired if this text is donated in the month of Phalguna.
The Linga Purana gives information about season, geography, cosmology, festivals, a tour guide for pilgrimage (Tirtha), etc.
Also this Purana adds the details about the stotras, handbook for the design and consecration of a Linga and Nandi.
Similarly Linga Purana explains about the importance of these icons, a description of Yoga with claims of its various benefits.
9(12). Varaha Purana : This Sanskrit Varaha Purana is written as वराह पुराण (varāha purāṇa).
The Supreme Lord Sri Varaha (Vishnu) first recited this to the Goddess Sri Bhudevi (Mother Earth). It has twenty-four thousand shlokas and is to be donated in the month of Chaitra.
Varaha Purana includes information about the Goddesses and Lord Shiva and also has the discussion of Karma and Dharma called Dharmasamhita.
This texts explains about the greatness of the temples and sites in Mathura and Nepal.
Varaha Puranas has the shlokas about the dialogue between the King Janamejaya and the Rishi (Sage) Vaishampayana.
This part about the King Janamejaya and Rishi (Sage) Vishmpayana is also known as the Dharma Samhita.
Similarly, in Varaha Purana we can find the information about Rishi Suta narrating the conversation between Lord Sri Brahma Deva and Sanatkumara.
9(13). Skanda Purana : This Skanda Purana in Sanskrit is written as स्कन्द पुराण or स्कान्द पुराण (skanda purāṇa or skānda purāṇa).
This Purana gives information about Lord Skanda or Kartikeya. It has eighty-one thousand shlokas and one desirous of punya donates the text in the month of Chaitra.
This Purana given information in different Khandas like Kedāra Khaṇḍa, Kaumārikā Khaṇḍa or Kumārikā Khaṇḍa, Arunācala Khaṇḍa or Arunācala Māhātmya.
Similarly, Skanda Purana adds information about Viṣṇu Khaṇḍa or Vaiṣṇava Khaṇḍa like Veṅkaṭācala Māhātmya, Puruṣottamakṣetra Māhātmya, Badarikāśrama Māhātmya,
Kārttikamāsa Māhātmya, Mārgaśirṣamāsa Māhātmya, Bhāgavata Māhātmya, Vaiśākhamāsa Māhātmya, Ayodhyā Māhātmya, Vāsudeva Māhātmya, etc.
9(14). Vamana Purana : In Sanskrit Vamana Purana is known as वामन पुराण (vāmana purāṇa).
Lord Sri Brahma Deva was the first person to recite this. It has ten thousand shlokas and the text should be donated in early autumn (sharad ritu).
This text is named after Lord Sri Vishnu’s avatar Lord Vamana (Dwarf incarnation).
In this Vamana Purana, Devarishi (Sage) Narada asks Maharishi Pulastya about the assumption of the Vamana avatar by Lord Sri Vishnu
The Purana has the chapters glorifying Lord Sri Vishnu and also contains chapters about Lord Shiva as well and similarly chapters about Goddesses.
The Vamana Purana has information about ‘Saromahatmya‘, that is, about the tirthas (rivers) and forests of the region around Thanesar and Kurukshetra and similarly mentions geography and sites in South India.
9(15). Kurma Purana : The Sanskrit pronunciation of this text of Kurma Purana is written as कूर्म पुराण (kūrma purāṇa).
Lord Sri Vishnu recited this in his form of the avatar of Lord Sri Kurma (Turtle incarnation).
Kumar Purana has eighteen thousand shlokas and should be donated at the time of the equinoxes (Sankramana / Sankranti time).
The Kurma Purana, has the information about the philosophical Gita. This is named as ‘Ishvara-Gita‘, that is, this is spoken by Lord Shiva.
This Purana presents Yoga and vrata information, with a dialogue from Lord Shiva.
The dialogue begins after Lord Sri Vishnu and Lord Shiva give a hug to each other, and then Lord Sri Vishnu invites Lord Shiva to describe about the nature of the world, life and self.
9(16). Matsya Purana : In Sanskrit Matsya Purana is written as मत्स्य पुराण (matsya purāṇa).
Lord Sri Vishnu recited this in his form of Lord Sri Matsya Avatar (fish incarnation) to Manu.
Matsya Purana has fourteen thousand shlokas and should be donated at the time of the equinoxes (Sankramana / Sankranti time).
The Matsya Purana explains about the great flood. During this great flood whole earth and humans led by King Manu, the seeds of all plants, other living beings, as well as its knowledge books (Vedas) were saved by the Lord Sri Matsya.
This text contains information about the various topics. The text incorporates a similar coverage on legends of Lord Shiva and Lord Sri Vishnu, and also has a section on Goddess Shakti.
Matsya Purana explains about the importance of Hindu festivals and family celebrations such as those related to the Samskara (Sanskar) (rite of passage).
9(17). Garuda Purana : This Garuda Purana in Sanskrit is written as गरुड पुराण (garuḍa purāṇa).
Lord Sri Krishna (Vishnu) was the first person to recite this and it has eighteen thousand shlokas. (When this text has to be donated is not stated.)
Garuda Purana chapters deals with a highly varied collection of topics.
The Purana has information about Dharma, cosmology, relationship between Devatas (Demigods), ethics, good against evil, Yoga, the theory of “heaven and hell” with “karma and rebirth“, etc.
Similarly, Garuda Purana widely explains about the information about ancestral rites and moksha, rivers and geography, minerals and stones, testing methods for gems for their quality, listing of plants and herbs, etc.
9(18). Brahmanda Purana : The Brahmanda Purana in Sanskrit is written as ब्रह्माण्ड पुराण (brahmāṇḍa purāṇa).
Lord Sri Brahma Deva recited this first and it has twelve thousand and two hundred shlokas in it.
Comprehensive explanation about the creation of cosmos, discussion about the time as a dimension and details of Kalpa and Yuga is given in this Purana.
This Purana includes information about ‘Lalitopakhyana‘, that is, the information about Goddess theology and her central importance.
Brahmanda Purana contains the details about geography related Mahatmyas (Greatness) about pilgrimage sites, rivers, temples, etc.
10. Upapuranas : In Sanskrit Upapuranas is written as उपपुराण (upapurāṇa). These are the sub (Upa) Puranas other than the main first 18 Puranas.
The 18 Upapuranas (sub-puranas) names with basic information is as given below:
10(1). Sanat-kumara Purana : In Sanskrit Sanat-kumara Purana is written as सनत्-कुमार पुराण (sanat-kumāra purāṇa). This Purana is also known as Sanat-kumaryyem Purana.
The four Kumaras are four Rishi (Sages) from the Puranic texts. These four Kumaras (Kumars) roam in the universe as 5 year old children.
These four Sanat-kumaras names are : Sanaka kumara (ancient), Sanatana kumara (eternal), Sanandana kumara (ever joyful) and Sanat kumara (ever young).
They are described as the first manasaputras (mind-born children) of Lord Sri Brahma Deva.
These four Kumaras were not at all interested in material things and are always eager to gain knowledge about Lord Sri Vishnu.
All four brothers (Sanat-kumaras) will always be studying Vedas and other texts, and will also be always travelling together.
10(2). Narasimha Purana : In Sanskrit it is written as नरसिंह पुराण or नारसिंह पुराण (narasimha purāṇa or nārasimha purāṇa).
Narasimha Purana is also called as Naarasimham Purana (नारसिंहं पुराण) (nārasimham purāṇa).
Narasimha Purana contains the three versions of the Yama Gītā (other two versions are the Vishnu Purana and Agni Purana).
The Purana consist the information about the Dashavatar (10 Avatars) of Lord Sri Vishnu.
This Narasimha Purana also has the details about lists of the kings of the Suryavansh (Suryavamsha) (Solar dynasty) and the Chandravansh (Chandravamsha) (Lunar dynasty).
10(3). Nanda Purana : In Sanskrit Nanda Purana is written as नन्द पुराण or नान्द पुराण (nanda purāṇa or nānda purāṇa).
Nanda Purana is also called as Nandiyam or Nandiyam Purana (नान्दियं or नान्दियं पुराण) (nāndiyaṁ or nāndiyaṁ purāṇa).
Nanda Purana or Nadiyam or Nadiyam Purana was first narrated by Nandi, the mount (vehicle) of Lord Shiva.
10(4). Shivadharma Purana : In Sanskrit Shivadharma Purana (Shiva Dharma Purana) is written as शिवधर्म पुराण (śivadharma purāṇa).
Shivadharma Purana (Shiva Dharma Purana) is also called as Shiva Rahasyam (शिव रहस्यं) (śiva rahasyaṁ).
Basically, this Purana called as Shivadharma Purana or Shiva Rahasyam talks about secrets of Lord Shiva.
10(5). Samba Purana : In Sanskrit Samba Purana is written as साम्ब पुराण (sāmba purāṇa).
A very few times, this Samba Purana is also called as Durvasa Purana or Daurvasam (दूर्वास पुराण or दूर्वासं) (dūrvāsa purāṇa or dūrvāsaṁ).
This Purana is also called as Saura Purana (सौर पुराण) (saura purāṇa) and mainly deals about the topics related to Lord Sri Surya Deva (Sun God).
The Samba Purana’s full narrative is shown as a discussion between the Ikshvaku (Solar Dynasty) King Brihadbala and Maharishi (Sage) Vasishtha.
Samba Purana contains a comprehensive information about Solar system, geography of earth, creation, eclipses, explanation of Lord Sri Surya Deva and his assistants, etc.
Similarly this Purana share the details about recitations of mantras, yoga, construction of deities, manners and customs, rites and rituals, and dāna (donation), etc.
This Purana also deals with the curse given to Lord Sri Krishna’s son Samba (to be affected by leprosy) by Rishi (Sage) Durvasa and later how it was cured by worshipping Lord Sri Surya Deva.
(Lord Sri Krishna’s son Samba constructed a temple in Mitravana near the banks of the Chandrabhaga. Now this temple is located in Multan, Pakistan and is called as ‘Multan Sun Temple’.)
10(6). Naradiya Purana : In Sanskrit this Naradiya Purana is written as नारदीय पुराण (nāradīya purāṇa).
Naradiya Purana is also called as Naradiyam (नारदीयं) (nāradīyaṁ).
The Naradiya Purana gives details about Moksha, Pashupata philosophy, six Vedangas, Dharma, Adhyatma-jnana (monastic life), ways of worshipping:
Lord Sri Rama, Lord Sri Hayagriya, Lord Sri Krishna, Lord Sri Narasimha, Goddess Sri Lakshmi Devi, Lord Hanuman, Lord Shiva, Lord Ganesha.
The Naradiya Purana or Naradiyam also has information about ‘Rukmangada Charita‘ (रुक्मान्गद चरित) (rukmāṅgada carita), that is, a legendary story of King Rukmangada, a devotee of Lord Vishnu.
10(7). Kapila Purana : In Sanskrit Kapila Purana is written as कपिल पुराण (kapila purāṇa). Kapila Purana is also known as Kapilam (कपिलं) (kapilaṁ).
Lord (Sage) Kapila is the main narrator of this Purana. Kapila Puranan or Kapilam consists information about the glories about the ‘puņya tirtha kṣetras‘, that is, hily pilgrimage places of Utkala.
Also, this Purana explains about the divinity of Maiterya Vana (Today’s Konark Odisha), Ekamra Tirtha (Today’s Bhubaneswar), Viraja Kshetra (Today’s Biraja temple at Bhubaneswar) and Purusottama Kshetra (Today’s Puri Jagannath).
Lord (Sage) Kapila explains about this Kapila Purana to King Shalyajit regarding the greatness of Utkala Kingdom.
This Purana explains about the Lord Shiva, Goddess Sri Durga Devi, Lord Sri Vishnu and Lord Sri Surya Deva deities in and around today’s Odisha.
10(8). Manava Purana : This Manava Purana in Sanskrit is written as मानव पुराण (mānava purāṇa). Manava Purana is also called as Manavam (मानवं) (mānavaṁ).
10(9). Aushanasa Purana : In Sanskrit Aushanasa Purana is written as औशनस पुराण (auśanasa purāṇa).
10(10). Mudgala Purana : In Sanskrit Mudgala Purana is written as मुद्गल पुराण (mudgala purāṇa).
Mudgala Purana is dedicated to Lord Ganesha (Gaṇeśa). As an upapurāṇa, Mudgala Purana contains various stories and ritualistic information relating to Lord Ganesha.
The Mudgala Purana along with the Ganesha Purana are called as Ganapatyas (गाणपत्य / Gāṇapatya), that is, we can find information about Lord Ganesha in these two Puranas.
The eight avatars of Lord Ganesha is explained in Mudgala Purana. These avatars (incarnations) are not the same as the four avatars (incarnations) of Lord Ganesha that are explained in the Ganesha Purana.
10(11). Varuna Purana : In Sanskrit Varuna Purana is written as वरुण पुराण or वारुण पुराण (varuṇa purāṇa or vāruṇa purāṇa).
10(12). Kalika Purana : In Sanskrit Kalika Purana is written as काळिका पुराण (kāḷikā purāṇa).
Kalika Purana is also called as Kali Purana (काळी पुराण) (kāḷī purāṇa), Sati Purana (सती पुराण) (satī purāṇa) or Kalika Tantra (काळिका त्रन्त्र) (kāḷikā trantra).
The Kalika Purana gives information about the stories of Devi (Goddess) trying to bring Lord Shiva back from ascetic life into that of a householder‘s life.
This Purana eulogizes the Goddess Sri Kamakhya Dev (Sri Kamakshi Devi), and also gives details about the rituals required for worshiping her.
The Kalika Purana also explains in deep about the rivers and mountains at ‘Kamarupa tirtha‘ and indicates about the ‘Brahmaputra River‘ and the ‘Kamakhya Temple‘.
10(13). Maheshwara Purana : In Sanskrit Maheshwara Purana is written as महेश्वर पुराण (mahēśvara purāṇa).
10(14). Ganesha Purana : In Sanskrit Ganesha Purana is written as गणेश पुराण (gaṇēśa purāṇa).
The Upasanakhanda (first part) of this Purana, shows two ways of worship of Lord Ganesha.
One of the way of worshipping Lord Ganesha, that is, by preparing an deity image of Lord Ganesha, then decorating it with various flowers, including garika (kusha) (grass) is given in this Purana.
10(15). Saura Purana : In Sanskrit Saura Purana is written as सौर पुराण (saura purāṇa).
In this Saura Purana Lord Sri Surya Deva glorifies Lord Shiva and his Goddess Shakti Devi (Parvati Devi).
This Purana eulogizes the divine place of Varanasi (Kashi) and explains its different holy places and Lingas.
The Saura Purana contains the versions which narrates the dialogue between Urvashi Devi and her consort Pururavas (Pururava).
Similarly, this Purana consists the information about the Goddess (Devi) worship, benefits of dānas (donations), vratas (rituals of vows) and small descriptions of the Puranas.
10(16). Vishwakarma Purana : In Sanskrit Vishwakarma Purana is written as विश्वकर्म पुराण (viśvakarma purāṇa).
10(17). Vishnudharmottara Purana : In Sanskrit Vishnudharmottara Purana (Vishnu Dharmottara Purana) is written as विष्णुधर्मोत्तर पुराण (viṣṇu dharmōttara purāṇa).
The Vishnudharmottara Purana contains information about division of time, astronomy, cosmogony, dharma stories, cosmology, geography, etc.
Similarly, this Purana gives information about manners and customs, law of war and politics, strategies, genealogies (mostly of Kings and Rishis / Sages), astrology, etc.
10(18). Bhargava Purana : In Sanskrit Bhargava Purana is written as भार्गव पुराण (bhārgava purāṇa). This Bhargava Purana is narrated by Rishi Bhargava.
Bhargava Purana has two main partition. First, will be the Upasana Khanda, however the second part will be Leela Khanda.
11. Darshana Shastras (Sutras) : In Sanskrit Darshana Shastras is written as दर्शन शास्त्र / सूत्र (darśana śāstra / sūtra).
There are 6 Dharshana Shastras (Sutras) as given below with basic information:
11(1). Purva Mimamsa Shastra (Sutra) : In Sanskrit this is written as पूर्व मीमांसा शस्त्र (सूत्र) [(pūrva mīmānsā śāstra (sūtra)].
Purva Mimamsa Shastra (Sutra) is also called as Mimamsa Shastra (Sutra) and it is composed by Rishi (Sage) Jaimini.
This Shastra (Sutra) is one of the highly significant philosophical text in Hinduism (Sanatana Dharma).
This Shastra (Sutra) forms the foundation of Mimamsa (Mimamsa Shastra / Sutra). This Mimamsa Shastra (Sutra) is one of the oldest orthodox schools (Darshanas) of Indian philosophy.
Rishi (Sage) Jaimini was one of the disciples of Lord (Sage) Sri Vedavyasa ji, the composer of the Great and Divine Epic of Mahabharata.
11(2). Nyaya Shastra (Sutra) : In Sanskrit Nyaya Shastra (Sutra) is written as न्याय शास्त्र (सूत्र) [n’yāya śāstra (sūtra)]. In simple word, this is also called as Nyaya (Nyay) (न्याय) (n’yāya).
The Nyaya or Nyaya Shastra (Sutra) was founded by a Maharishi (Sage) Gautama.
Maharishi (Sage) Gautama is also called as Gotama, अक्षपाद (akṣapāda) and दीर्घतपस् (dīrghatapas).
The local people of the place called Mithila (Today’s Darbhanga in Bihar) credit the foundation of Nyaya (Nyasa Shastra / Sutra) philosophy to Maharishi (Sage) Gautama, that is, the husband of Ahalya Devi.
11(3). Vaisheshika Shastra (Sutra) : In Sanskrit this is written as वैशेषिक शस्त्र (सूत्र) [vaiśēṣika śāstra (sūtra)]. In simple word, this is also called as Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक) (vaiśēṣika).
Rishi Kanada (Kanad) founded the Vaisheshika Shatra (Sutra) (School).
Totally this text has ten books which includes, commentaries on Vaiśeṣika Sūtra, Rāvaṇabhāṣya, Bhāradvājavṛtti, Praśastapāda’s Padārthadharmasaṁgraha,
Candra’s Daśapadārthaśāstra, Vyomaśiva’s Vyomavatī, Śridhara’s Nyāyakandalī, Udayana’s Kiranāvali, Śrivatsa’s Līlāvatī and Śivāditya’s Saptapadārthī.
11(4). Sankhya Shastra (Sutra) : In Sanskrit it is written as सान्ख्य शास्त्र (सूत्र) [sāṅkhya śāstra (sūtra)]. Sometimes this is also pronounced as Samkhya Shastra (Sutra).
Lord (Sage) Kapila is the founder of this Shastra (Sutra) (School). He is an avatar of Lord Sri Vishnu.
This Shastra (Sutra) is the combination of the texts of the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy like:
Samkhya (Sankhya) Sutra of Kapila, Samkhya Sutra Vritti of Aniruddha, Tattva Samasa and bhasya (commentary) of Narendra, Vrittisara of Vedantin Mahadeva,
Samkhya Karika of Ishvarakrishna, Bhasya (commentary) of Vijnana Bhikshu, and the works of Gaudapada, Vachaspati Mishra, and Panchashikha.
11(5). Yoga Shastra (Sutra) : In Sanskrit this is written as योग शस्त्र (सूत्र) [yōga śāstra (sūtra)].
This Yoga Shastra (Sutra) was found by Rishi (Sage) Patanjali.
The Yoga Shastra (Sutras) is well known for its reference to ashtanga, that is, eight elements of practice culminating in samadhi (Samadhi means not death).
Those eight elements names are as given here: यम (yama) (abstinences), नियम (niyama) (observances), आसन (asana) (yoga postures), प्राणयाम (pranayama) (breath control techniques),
प्रत्याहार (pratyahara) (senses withdrawal), धारण (dharana) (mind concentration), ध्यान (dhyana) (meditation) and समाधि (samadhi) (absorption).
The main aim of practicing all the above is to reach Kaivalya (Vaikuntha – Lord Sri Vishnu’s abode).
11(6). Uttara Mimamsa Shastra (Sutra) or Brahma Sutra or Vedanta or Vedanta Shastra : In Sanskrit it is written as उत्तर मीमांसा शास्त्र (सूत्र) [uttara mīmānsa śāstra (sūtragaḷu)] or ब्रह्म सूत्र (brahma sūtra) or वेदान्त (vēdānta) or वेदान्त शास्त्र (vēdānta śāstra).
The founder of this Shastra (Sutra) (School) is Lord (Sage) Sri Vedayyasa Ji.
Uttara Mimamsa Shastra (Sutra) or Brahma Sutra or Vedanta or Vedanta Shastra is one of the six (āstika) schools of Hindu philosophy.
This text gives information about the ideas that appeared from, or were aligned with, the speculations and philosophies contained in the Upanishads, specifically, knowledge and Moksha (liberation).
This consists many sub-traditions, all of which are based on a similar group of texts called the “Three Sources” (prasthānatrayī) and there names are: Upanishads, Brahma Sutras and Srimad Bhagavad Gita.
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